Fertility - Infertility

Semen analysis and parameters

A general semen analysis includes:

  • Macroscopic evaluation of the sample, such as volume, liquefaction time, pH.
  • Microscopic evaluation, consisting of:
  1. a) Total sperm count (concentration), which is expressed as millions of spermatozoa / ml
  2. b) Sperm motility, which is split into 4 categories (rapid progressive motility, slow progressive motility, non-progressive motility and immotile).
  3. c) Sperm morphology (head, midpiece and tail)
  4. d) Count of white blood cells.


According to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO), a sperm sample with the following characteristics is considered normal.

  • Volume: at least 1,5 ml
  • Sperm count: at least 000.000 /ml
  • Progressive motility: At least 32%, within 1 hour.
  • Morphology: At least 4% of spermatozoa should be normal.


Sperm disorders

Oligospermia: Low number of sperm cells (less than 15 million/ml or 39 million total).

Asthenospermia: Low progressive motility (less than 32%).

Teratospermai: Low percentage of morphologically normal sperm cell (less than 4%).

Oligoasthenoteratospermia (ΟΑT): Combination of low numbers, low motility and poor morphology. This is one of the most common disorders.

Azoospermia: Complete absence of sperm cell in the ejaculate.

Aspermia: Lack of ejaculation.

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